Draft National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy 2011: A flawed recipe

The ‘Drug Price’ has always remained one of the critical factors to ensure greater access to medicines, especially in the developing economies like India, where predominantly individuals are the payers. This point has also been widely accepted by the international community, except perhaps the diehard ‘self-serving’ vested interests.

Just to cite some key examples, in the “ACCESS TO MEDICINES” report, the ‘Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)’ of ‘Swiss Centre for International Health’ has highlighted, “Affordability is one core issue at the center of debates about medicine use in international health.”

An article appeared on “This is Africa”, a new publication from the ‘Financial Times’ dated November 11, 2011 wrote: “The BRIC countries have redefined affordable drugs, making access to medicines possible for millions in low income regions. Yet changing priorities for major generic drug producers, such as India, could reshape the African pharmaceutical landscape. Access to medicines has improved dramatically over the last decade, driven by the rise of cheap pharmaceuticals from Asia, domestic efforts by governments of developing countries, commitment from donors, and price cuts from brand producers.”

Even the Director General Pascal Lamy of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in his address to the 11th Annual International Generic Pharmaceutical Alliance Conference in Geneva on 9 December 2008, said that since the 2001 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, “access to medicines has been improved through a major reduction of prices, enhanced international funding, a greater recognition of the need to find a balance within the intellectual property system, as well as the use of some of the TRIPS flexibilities by certain WTO Members”.

Similarly, the global pharmaceutical major GlaxoSmithKline (GsK) in its 2010 ‘Corporate Responsibility Report’ indicated: “Pricing is one factor that impacts on access to medicines and vaccines.”

Echoing similar sentiment the Swiss Pharma giant Novartis in its website articulated: “The issue of access to medicines is complex, involving factors such as development and health policies, health system infrastructure and best practices, pricing, rational use of drugs and adequate funding.”

‘Drug Price’ control alone cannot improve access to medicines:

As we have seen above, drug price is indeed one of the critical factors to improve access to modern medicines. It is for this reason, Governments in countries like Germany, Spain, UK, Korea and China have recently mulled strict price control measures in their respective countries.

Thus, I reiterate, drug price is certainly an important factor to improve access to modern medicines, but definitely not the only factor to focus on, as is being done in India by its successive governments.

In India, we have witnessed through almost the past four decades that drug price control alone would do little to improve access to modern medicines to the common man significantly, especially in the current socio-economic and healthcare environment of the country.  Continuation of poor access to modern medicines even after 40 years of stringent drug price control vindicates this point.

Draft NPPP 2011:

A reform-oriented ‘Drug Policy’ of India, was languishing as a ‘prisoner of indecision’ of the policy makers, since quite a  while.

Draft National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy 2011 (NPPP 2011) has just been announced by the government with the ‘essentiality’ criteria for price control. The stakeholders have been requested to give their views on the same.

The draft policy seems to have taken some bold initiatives in terms of criteria and mechanics of price control, especially, moving away from the age old and non-transparent ‘Cost Based Pricing (CBP)’ to a more transparent ‘Market Based Pricing (MBP)’ model of Pronab Sen Committee of 2005.

However, in my view, NPPP 2011 has failed yet again to go beyond price control by effectively addressing other key issues for inadequate access to modern medicines by the common man, in a comprehensive and holistic way.

HSPH article of 2007 echoes the basis of Draft NPPP 2011:

‘Harvard School of Public Health’ in an article of July 2007 titled, ‘How Effective Is India’s Drug Price control Regime?’ had commented that in the present form, DPCO 1995 is inadequate in its coverage and does not serve the purpose that it had intended to.

The article recommends that there is an urgent need to replace the existing criteria for price control using monopoly and market dominance measures with the criteria of ‘essentiality’ of drugs, which would have a maximum spill-over effect on the entire therapeutic category.

In addition the paper says that this critical change is also ‘likely to prevent the present trend of circumventing price controls through non-standard combinations and at the same time would discourage producers moving away from controlled to non-controlled drugs’.

Just as mentioned in the draft NPPP 2011, the ‘Harvard School of Public Health’ article of 2007 reiterates that direct price control should be applied on formulations rather than basic drugs, which is likely to minimize intra-industry distortion in transaction.

The paper also points out, “Huge trade margins are a rule rather than exceptions in Indian drug industry. In view of this, there is a need to fix ceiling on trade margins which could lead to significant downward influence on medicine prices. Finally, we argue that to ensure drug security in India, a strong regulatory institutions need to be established.”

It is interesting to note that NPPP 2011 draws so much similarity with the ‘Harvard School of Public Health’ article published way back in 2007.

Basic objectives of a Drug Policy:

The ‘Drug Policy 1986’ clearly enunciated the basic policy objectives relating to drugs and pharmaceuticals in India, as follows:

  • Ensuring abundant availability of medicines at reasonable price and quality for mass consumption.
  • Strengthening the domestic capability for cost effective, quality production and exports of pharmaceuticals by reducing barriers to trade in the pharmaceutical sector.
  • Strengthening the system of quality control over drug and pharmaceutical production and distribution.
  • Encouraging R&D in the pharmaceutical industry in a manner compatible with the country’s needs and with particular focus on diseases endemic or relevant to India by creating an conducive environment.
  • Creating an incentive framework for the pharmaceutical and drug industry which promotes new investment into pharmaceutical industry and encourages the introduction of new technologies and new drugs.

After having completed around 25 years since then, it is high time for the government to ponder and assess whether the successive drug policies have delivered to the nation the desirable outcome as enunciated above.

Even the draft NPPP 2011 does not seem to have made any conscious attempt to make any amend in these areas either.

The draft NPPP 2011 offered another opportunity for a robust beginning:

Many of us will know that the 2002 Drug Policy was challenged in the Karnataka High Court, which by its order dated November 12, 2002 issued stay on the implementation of the Policy. This order was challenged by the Government in the Supreme Court, which vacated the stay vide its order dated March 10, 2003 but observed as follows:

We suspend the operation of the order to the extent it directs that the Policy dated 15.2.2002 shall not be implemented. However we direct that the petitioner shall consider and formulate appropriate criteria for ensuring essential and life saving drugs not to fall out of the price control and further directed to review drugs, which are essential and life saving in nature till 2nd May, 2003”.

When nothing tangible happened thereafter, in October 2011, the honorable Supreme court against another Public Interest Litigation (PIL) asked the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP) to submit separate affidavits to the court on November 17, 2011 explaining their seriousness to bring the essential drugs under price control.

As a result of the November 17, 2011 order of the Supreme Court, it now appears that to put a new pharmaceutical policy in place in an unprecedented hurry, with the ‘essentiality’ criteria for price control, the Government lost another golden opportunity for a new and robust beginning with a comprehensive and well thought out national drug policy.

Draft NPPP 2011: Is it just to satisfy the Supreme Court of India?

The overall objective of any ‘Drug Policy’ is indeed to help accelerating all-round inclusive growth of the Indian pharmaceutical industry and to make it a force to reckon with, in the global pharmaceutical arena. At the same time, the policy should help creating an appropriate ecosystem to improve access to quality medicines at an affordable price by the entire population of the nation.

As stated above, in NPPP 2011, fixing Ceiling Price (CP) based on ‘Market Based Pricing (MBP)’ approach for 348 drugs falling under National List of Essential Medicines 2011 (NLEM 2011) and not beyond, could make sense, especially keeping in mind the direction given by the honorable Supreme Court of India on March 2003 and October 2011 on the subject, as indicated above.

However, just one pronged approach with the drug price control mechanism to address the issue of improving access to modern medicines in no way can be considered as a holistic approach to achieve objectives of a Drug policy. Isolated and incoherent initiatives of price control (though important) in the draft NPPP 2011, without taking the big picture into consideration, appears to be foolhardy.

A lurking fear creeps in though, has NPPP 2011 been drafted by the Government just to satisfy the Supreme Court of India with the incorporation of ‘essentiality’ criteria for price control medicines?

12th Five Year Plan increases public spending towards health:

In the 12th Five Year Plan of India commencing 2013, the country is expected to spend 2.5% of its GDP for health. Currently, public spending on health as a percentage to the GDP being at 0.9% is among the lowest in the world and against 1.8% of Sri Lanka, 2.3% of China and 3.3% of Thailand, just to name a few.

Recently another expert committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Srinath Reddy suggested that high ‘out of pocket’  healthcare expenditure of the people of India, should be significantly reduced by doubling the public spending on health. The committee also commented, “Increasing public health spending to our recommendations will result in a five-fold increase in real per capita health expenditures by the government from Rs 670 in 2011-12 to Rs 3,432 by 2021-22.”

Health coverage for ‘outpatient treatment’ in India is a necessity:

It is important to note from the above report that outpatient treatment in India accounts for around 78% of the ‘out-of-pocket’ expenses, with medicines accounting for 72% of the total outpatient health expenditure. Unfortunately, there is hardly any cover available to the common man for outpatient treatment in India, even by those holding some form of health insurance coverage.

A comparison of private (out of pocket) health expenditure:

Following is a comparison between ‘out of pocket’ expenses between India and its closer neighbors:

1. Pakistan: 82.5% 2. India: 78% 3. China: 61% 4. Sri Lanka: 53% 5. Thailand: 31% 6. Bhutan: 29% 7. Maldives: 14%

(Source: The Lancet)

Taming drug price inflation has not helped improving access to medicines:

It is quite clear from the following that food prices impact health more than medicine costs:


Pharma Price Increases

Food Inflation










Source: CMIE

Over one third of Indian population can’t afford to spend on medicines:

While framing the draft NPPP 2011, the Government should have kept in mind that a population of around 35% in India, still lives Below the Poverty Line (BPL) and will not be able to afford any expenditure even towards essential medicines.

Adding more drugs in the list of essential medicines and even bringing them all under stringent price control will not help the country to resolve this critical issue.

Why 40 years of stringent price control failed to make medicines ‘affordable’?

In my view, there is no ‘one size fits all’ type of definition for affordability of medicines, just like any other essential commodities, especially when around 78% of healthcare expenditure is ‘out of pocket’ in our country. Any particular price point may appear affordable to some, but will still remain unaffordable to many, especially in a country like India.

The initiatives taken by the government for price control of medicines since the last four decades have certainly been able to make the drug prices in India one of the lowest in the world coupled with intense cut throat market competition.

Unfortunately, this solitary measure has failed to improve access to modern medicines to the common man significantly due to various other critical reasons, which we hardly discuss and deliberate upon with as much passion as price control.

Despite so many drug price control orders, even today 47% and 31% of hospitalization in rural and urban areas, respectively, are financed by private loans and selling of assets by individuals.

Multi-dimensional approach to improve access to affordable medicines:

Access to healthcare and affordable medicines can be improved through an integrated and comprehensive approach of better access to doctors, diagnostics and hospitals, along with an efficient price regulatory mechanism for each component of healthcare cost including medicines. We should not forget that in India over 46% of patients travel beyond 100 km to seek medical care even today. (Source: Technopak & Philips (2010) Accessible Healthcare: Joining the Dots Now, New Delhi).

Healthcare infrastructure in India is severely constrained by lack of trained healthcare professionals, limited access to diagnostics/treatment and availability of quality medicines. Consequently, the supply of healthcare services falls significantly short of demand.

The current figure of 9 beds per 10,000 population in India is far from the world average of 40 beds per 10,000 people. Similarly, for every 10,000 Indians, there are just 6 doctors available in the country, while China has 20 doctors for the same number of population. Without proper equipment and doctors to diagnose and treat patients, medicines are of little value to those who need them most.

Thus, drug price control alone, though important, cannot improve access to healthcare without creation of adequate infrastructure required to ensure effective delivery and administration of medicines, together with appropriate financial cover for health.

Encourage healthy competition among healthcare providers:

Effective penetration of various types of innovative health insurance schemes will  be one of the key growth drivers for the inclusive growth of the Indian pharmaceutical industry, as desired by many in India.

Simultaneously, there is a need to promote tough competition within those healthcare providers to make them more and more cost-efficient while providing greater patients’ satisfaction. In that process, all elements of healthcare expenditure like physicians’ fees, diagnostic tests, hospital beds and medicines could be made affordable to the common man.

In such competitive environment, the patients will be the net gainers, as we have seen in other knowledge based industries, like the telecom sector with incredible increase in the tele-density of the country.

The drug policy should also include an equally transparent system to ensure that errant players within the healthcare sector, who will be caught with profiteering motives for manipulation of drug formulations and dosage forms to avoid price control, are brought to justice with exemplary punishments, as will be defined by law.

The Government won’t be able to do it all alone:

The Government needs to partner with the private sector to address India’s acute healthcare challenges through various Public-Private-Partnership (PPPs) initiatives.

Recent examples of successful PPP in the health sector include outsourcing ambulance services, mobile medical units, diagnostics and urban health centers  to private NGOs. PPP should adequately cover both primary and specialty healthcare, including clinical and diagnostic services, insurance, e-healthcare, hospitals and medical equipment.


‘Drug price’ is universally recognized as one of the important elements, though not the sole element, to improve access to modern medicines. India is no exception.

This time around, the draft NPPP 2011 has come out in the public domain again with a flawed recipe, though the policy makers have tried to include some welcoming changes in it. The authors of the draft policy seem to be still preoccupied and obsessed with addressing the symptoms of ‘affordability of medicines’ rather than focusing on the larger issue of ‘access to modern medicines’ in a holistic way.

By not addressing the all important ‘access’ related critical issues in the draft NPPP 2011 rather comprehensively, dismantling the operational ‘silos’ and inter-ministerial administrative boundaries, the architects of NPPP 2011 seem to have missed the bus, yet again, in their endeavor to help achieving a significant dimension of the long overdue ‘health for all’ objective of the nation.

Disclaimer: The views/opinions expressed in this article are entirely my own, written in my individual and personal capacity. I do not represent any other person or organization for this opinion.

Changing recipe for growth in the new paradigm of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry… for its effective implementation there appears to be more questions than answers:

India, the world’s largest democracy with its economy on a sustained growth track is creating an overall environment for high performance for all key sectors, including pharmaceuticals. In terms of GDP growth India is second only to China and is expected to become the fifth largest economy by 2017.
Dawn of a New Era:
Over a period of time, India has emerged as a fast growing pharmaceutical industry through various policy measures taken by the government of India (GoI). Such policy measures have been very supportive to the domestic companies. The absence of product patents from 1970 to 2005 enabled the Indian pharmaceutical companies to become world’s leading producers of ‘copycat’ versions of patented drugs. Lower cost base and expertise in ‘reverse engineering’ immensely helped the domestic industry to sustain its competitive edge during this period.

New product patent regime in 2005 heralded the dawn of a new era triggering a transformation of the industry. Return of large global companies like, MSD, Roche, Eli Lilly and entry of other company’s like Biogen, Genzyme, Allergan, Astellas, Eisai etc together with the emergence of many Indian companies to become research-based multinationals, are making this transformation more interesting.

Generic pharmaceuticals will continue to play a significant role:

Even with all these changes, generic pharmaceutical products will continue to play a significant role towards the growth of the industry. While being major global generic players, some large Indian companies like Dr. Reddy’s laboratories (DRL), Glenmark, Ranbaxy, Piramal Healthcare etc have commenced their journey on the long road of product discovery research with reasonable amount of initial success. There are now several new drug development programs by many of these Indian pharmaceutical companies, which will hopefully result in global product launches in not too distant future. India’s emphasis on research and development and new drug discovery is indeed growing since the country signed WTO agreement for product patent in 1995.

An industry with high success quotient:

Currently India is the world’s fourth largest producer of pharmaceuticals by volume and directly employs about 5 lakh people. The market is crowded with 20,000 pharmaceutical firms, 60,000 distributors and 700,000-800,000 retailers. Although there are around 5,600 licensed generics players, in reality around 3,000 of them are engaged in pharmaceutical production. The domestic pharmaceutical companies now cater to about 70% of the country’s requirements for medicines. The top 10 companies control about 30% and 250 companies control around 70% of the market.

Key determinants of success:

Following in my view are the key determinants, which will decide the extent of success of the Indian pharmaceutical industry as a whole:

• Healthcare delivery and infrastructure

• Access and affordability of modern medicines

• IPR environment

• Domestic R&D success

• Speed of regulatory reform process

• Disease trends and prescription patterns

• Public and private healthcare spending

• Penetration of health insurance

Domestic companies adopting different business model:

In this changing scenario different domestic companies are adopting different business models, as follows:

1. Penetration to the regulated generics markets:

- With partnership agreements with established generic companies

- Setting up own sales and marketing organisations both greenfield and also through acquisitions

- With acquisition of manufacturing facilities

2. Contract Research and Manufacturing Services (CRAMS):

Ballooning costs for research and development and low productivity have prompted the research-based global pharmaceutical companies to outsource part of their research and manufacturing activities to lower-cost, developing nations like, India and China.

India is gradually emerging as a competitive hub for CRAMS. The country is playing a significant role in manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and intermediates for the global pharmaceutical industry. We have also seen the global pharmaceutical companies signing-up long-term outsourcing contracts with the Indian manufacturing and contract research organizations.

Generic pharmaceuticals produced in India are increasingly being accepted all over the world, excepting some recent US-FDA related issues. Many Indian companies like Piramal Healthcare, Aurobindo, DRL etc are taking up global generic manufacturing contracts for the global players like, Allergan, Pfizer and GSK, in addition to marketing generic pharmaceuticals themselves. Outsourcing of such business processes to India has undoubtedly been proved to be not only effective in saving costs, but also in saving valuable developmental time for the Multinational companies (MNCs).

Besides all these, India is emerging as the preferred destination for outsourcing clinical trials because of its both high quality and lower cost facilities of global standards.

3. Operating in domestic generic market

4. Investing more in R&D for discovery of NCE/NME

Key growth drivers:

A recent study jointly undertaken by the Organization of Pharmaceutical Producers of India (OPPI) and Yes Bank identified following key growth drivers for the domestic pharmaceutical Industry:

• Consolidation leading to better pricing

• Population growth, changing demographics and urbanization

• Increasing per capita income leading to higher penetration

• Access to quality healthcare through health insurance schemes

• Robust product patent regime, although generics will continue to grow

The questions to ponder:

1. Whether domestic Indian pharmaceutical companies will make large-scale investments in R&D to compete effectively with the global companies across the world?

2. Whether global pharmaceutical companies will be successful in marketing drugs patented in India?

3. Whether the government, physicians and patients keep supporting the generics?

4. How will the new Drug Policy be?

5. How will the government go about improving access to modern medicines from the current level of 35% to 100% of the Indian population?


It is not quite easy to gauge the rate of progress of the Indian pharmaceutical industry in the new paradigm, at this stage. One of the key growth drivers of the domestic pharmaceutical industry has been the launch of a slew of new products of various types. The pipe line of such products has already started drying up in a comparative yardstick, in post product patent regime. Consequently, as already launched such new products reach the maturity stage from the growth phase of their ‘product life cycle’, a possible slowdown in the rate of growth of the respective companies in the domestic market is well anticipated.

There are other growth drivers though, for the industry, but how will these drivers actually drive the industry growth will, to a large extent, depend on proper answers to the above five questions. Thus, in the new paradigm though the growth recipe is ready, in its effective implementation there are more questions than answers.

By Tapan Ray

Disclaimer: The views/opinions expressed in this article are entirely my own, written in my individual and personal capacity. I do not represent any other person or organization for this opinion.