It is now a widely accepted fact that responsible self-medication plays an important role in health care, facilitating greater access to medicines and reducing overall health care cost. With continued improvement in people’s education, general knowledge and socioeconomic conditions, self-medication has been successfully integrated into many health care systems, throughout the world.This was emphasized in the paper “The benefits and risks of self-medication,” published by the World Health Organization (WHO) based on a presentation of the WHO Coordinator, Quality Assurance and Safety: Medicines, way back in March 2000.
Which is why, calibrated deregulation of prescription drugs for ‘Over the Counter (OTC)’ sale, are helping many countries to expand drug access in a cost-effective manner, facilitating overall health care, through responsible self-medication.
In this article, I shall try to explore the OTC drug issue in India, against the backdrop of the veracity of dangerous and virtually uncontrolled self-medication in the country. It will be interesting to recap where India stands in this area, despite the enactment of so many relevant laws and rules to eliminate this menace. In tandem, it will be worthwhile to fathom why is India still keeping away from promoting responsible self-medication through OTC drugs? Even when this is widely considered as one of the effective ways to improve access to drugs for specified common ailments at a reduced treatment cost for patients.
OTC Drug in India: ‘Where Art Thou?’ – becomes a relevant question in this context. Let me pick up the thread of this discussion from the general belief among a large number of domain experts that OTC drugs facilitate responsible self-medication.
OTC drugs facilitate responsible self-medication:
For greater clarity in this area, it will be worthwhile to first recapitulate the definition of self-medication. The W.H.O has defined itas, ‘the practice whereby, individuals treat their ailments and conditions with medicines which are approved and available without prescription, and which are safe and effective when used as directed.’
Whereas, self-medication with prescription drugs is not only an irresponsible act, it can often be dangerous to health for the users. On the other hand, OTC drugs facilitate responsible self-medication, as the drug regulators of respective countries have included under this category, with clear guidelines, only those medicines, which:
- Are of proven safety, efficacy and quality standard.
- And indicated only for conditions that are self-recognizable, and some common chronic or recurrent disorders.
- Should be specifically designed for the purpose, will require appropriate dose and dosage forms and necessarily supported by information, which describes: how to take or use the medicines; effects and possible side-effects; how the effects of the medicine should be monitored; possible interactions; precautions and warnings; duration of use; and when to seek professional advice.
Since, OTC drugs facilitate responsible self-medication, it will be interesting to know how the constituents of Big Pharma, such as Pfizer, view the social impact of legally recognized OTC drugs.
Social impact of self-medication with OTC drugs:
Like many other large global pharma players, Pfizer also believes: “OTC medicines provide easier access to treatment options for common conditions, offering not only convenience, but also timely treatment and relief for sudden symptoms or minor ailments.” The company also acknowledges, OTC medicines, as classified so by the drug regulators of a country, “provide consumers safe and effective treatments for commonly occurring conditions, saving them time and money that might otherwise be invested in other, more expensive health services.”
To substantiate the point, Pfizer communique referred to the U.S. study, which by analyzing the seven most common acute and chronic, self-treatable conditions found that 92 percent of those who use OTC medicines in a given year are likely to seek more expensive treatment elsewhere, if OTCs were not available.
The above may be construed as a generally accepted view of both, the drug regulators and a large number of drug companies, globally. Thus, it won’t be a bad idea to quickly have a glance at the process followed by the drug regulators of the major countries, such as US-FDA, for OTC classification of medicines.
US-FDA classification of OTC medicines:
In most countries of the world, as many of us would know, those who are permitted to sell drugs under a license, can sell two types of drugs, namely: prescription drugs and nonprescription drugs. OTC medicines, obviously, fall under the nonprescription category.
Briefly speaking, US-FDA defines OTC drugs as “drugs that are safe and effective for use by the general public without seeking treatment by a health professional.”The Agency reviews the active ingredients and the labeling of over 80 therapeutic classes of drugs, for example, analgesics or antacids, instead of individual drug products. For each category, an OTC drug monograph is developed and published in the Federal Register. OTC drug monographs are a kind of ‘recipe book’ covering acceptable ingredients, doses, formulations and labeling.
Many of these monographs are found in section 300 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Once a final monograph is implemented, companies can make and market an OTC product without the need for FDA pre-approval. These monographs define the safety, effectiveness and labeling of all marketing OTC active ingredients. While this is the scenario in the United States and a large number of other countries, let’s have also a glimpse of this aspect in India.
‘OTC drugs’ in India:
As on date, legally approved as OTC drugs along with the guidelines, for responsible self-medication during pre-defined common illnesses, doesn’t exist in India. Accordingly, neither drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 nor the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules, find any mention of OTC drugs, as yet. While even responsible self-medication is not legally allowed or encouraged in the country, ‘self-medication’ of all kinds and of all nature are rampant in India, possibly due to gross operational inefficiency on the ground.
Several research papers vindicate this point. One such study that was done with 500 participants, reported 93.8 percent self-medication with no gender difference. The most common reasons for self-medication were found to be – 45.84 percent for fever, 18.34 percent for pain, and 10.87 percent of headache, among others. While the common medications used were listed as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 49.4 percent, followed by antibiotics 11.6 percent, besides other drugs.
Among those participants who took self-medication were of the opinion that self-medication resulted in quick cure of illness – 50.75 percent, saved their time – 17.46 percent, and gave them a sense of independence – 17.06 percent. The most common source of information was found to be a local chemist/pharmacy – 39 percent.
Raising a flag of concern that indiscriminate self-medication is dangerous for the population, the study suggested that public health policies need to find a way of reducing unnecessary burden on healthcare services by decreasing the visits for minor ailments. One such way is a well-defined OTC category of medicines, as are being created in many countries, including the United States. However, it appears, the Indian drug regulators are still apprehensive about giving a formal recognition of OTC drugs in the country, to prevent self-medication that is, unfortunately, rampant in the country, even otherwise.
Self-medication rampant, although illegal in India:
Regardless of all drugs laws and rules being in place to prevent self-medication with prescription drugs, these seem to be just on paper, the ground reality is just the opposite in India. In the absence of a clearly defined category of OTC drugs with guidelines, most medicines falling under the drug act, are prescription drugs, except a few drugs on the Schedule K of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Currently, non-pharmacy stores can sell a few Schedule K drugs classified as ‘household remedies’ onlyin villages with less than 1,000 populations, and where there is no licensed dealer under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
Primarily to prevent self-medication and also to ensure maintenance of specified storage conditions, among others, the D&C Act requires all other drugs to be sold by a retail drug license holder and sold only against the prescriptions of registered medical practitioners. Such drugs are labeled with a symbol ‘Rx’ on the left-hand corner of the pack and the symbol ‘NRx’, if drugs fall under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act.
Additionally, these are also labeled with a warning – ‘To be sold on the prescription of a registered medical practitioner only.’ All retailers, pharmacy/medical store are supposed to strictly abide by this directive. But in reality, who cares? One can possibly get most prescription drugs that one wants, without a doctor’s prescription.
The same holds good for virtually unregulated advertising of some self-categorized ‘OTC drugs’, many of which fall under the prescription drug category. I re-emphasize, the terminology of OTC drugs does not exist, at all, in the D&C Act of India, not as yet.
Virtually uncontrolled advertisements of some so called ‘OTC’ drugs:
Media reports indicate, widespread complaints received in the drug controller general of India (DCGI)’s office that vitamin tablets and capsule formulations are being marketed in the country as dietary/food supplements to circumvent the Drugs Price Control Order (DPCO).
Curiously, to resolve this issue – way back on July 24, 2012, the Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB), the highest authority in the union health ministry on technical matters, deliberated on the OTC drug issue in India. After detailed discussion, the DTAB has given its green signal to amend Schedule K of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules in this regard.
But Food safety watchdog Food Safety and Standards Association of India (FSSAI) did act promptly on this matter. On September 24, 2016, FSSAI), reportedly, issued new guidelines clearly specifying that health supplements should not be sold as medicines and also fixed the permissible limits of various ingredients used in the products. It further said: “Every package of health supplement should carry the words health supplement as well as an advisory warning not for medicinal use prominently written.
“The quantity of nutrients added to the articles of food shall not exceed the recommended daily allowance as specified by the Indian Council of Medical Research and in case such standards are not specified, the standards laid down by the international food standards body namely the Codex Alimentarius Commission shall apply,” FSSAI added.
The juggernaut moves on:
The point worth noting here that all laws, rules and regulations are in place to discourage both, self-medication and surreptitious way to sell products sans medicinal values, as medicines. Despite the enacted laws and rules being reasonably robust to achieve the intended objective, inefficient implementation of the same keeps the juggernaut moving, perhaps gaining a momentum.
Is OTC Drug Category coming now or just another good intent?
The good news is: On September 18, 2017, the Drug Consultative Committee (DCC), in principle approved to amend rules on Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include a separate schedule for OTC drugs for minor illnesses like fevers, colds and certain types of allergies. However, in the meeting of February 20, 2019, the DCC constituted another subcommittee under the chairmanship of Drugs Controller, Haryana to examine the report on OTC drugs. The final decision is still awaited without any prescribed timeframe for the same.
Creation of separate schedule for OTC drugs in India, is still a contentious issue for some. Nonetheless, such a long overdue amendment in the D&C Act, along with well-regulated OTC guideline as and when it comes,I reckon,will expand drug access to patients. Alongside, the drug makers must ensure that these OTC medicines are safe, effective and offering good value for money.
As the author of the above W.H.O articled emphasized: ‘High ethical standards should be applied to the provision of information, promotional practices and advertising. The content and quality of such information and its mode of communication remains a key element in educating consumers in responsible self-medication.’ Thus, in the Indian context, it will be equally essential for drug companies to make sure that OTC medicinesare always accompanied by complete and relevant information that consumers can understand without any ambiguity.
Be that as it may, I agree, even responsible self-medication is not totally risk-free – not even with OTC drugs, just as many other things that we choose to do in life. The risks associated with the use of OTC medicines may include, risks of misdiagnosis, excessive drug consumption and for a prolonged duration, precipitating drug interactions, side-effects and polypharmacy.
This discussion will remain theoretical until the D&C law and rules are appropriately amended to accommodate much awaited OTC category of medicines. Till then one can possibly ask in India: ‘OTC drugs, where art thou?’
By: Tapan J. Ray
Disclaimer: The views/opinions expressed in this article are entirely my own, written in my individual and personal capacity. I do not represent any other person or organization for this opinion.